A phobia is a persistent and irrational fear that causes a person to avoid something specific - despite the awareness that it is not dangerous. It is extremely common, especially amongst women.
Some common phobias include the following:
· Acrophobia – a fear of heights
· Agoraphobia – a fear of places where escape is impossible/ help is unavailable
· Arachnophobia - a fear of spiders
· Aviatophobia - a fear of flying
· Claustrophobia - a fear of having no escape and being closed in
· Cynophobia - a fear of dogs.
Some less common phobias include the following:
· Barophobia a fear of gravity
· Blennophobia – a fear of slime
· Hippopotomonstrosesquipedaliophobia - a fear of long words
· Omphalophobia - a fear of bellybuttons.
Phobias result in extreme distress, and they impair the individual’s ability to function at work, or in a social context. Psychological symptoms can include: feelings of fear, panic, dread, or terror that are out of proportion to the real danger posed. Physical and mental symptoms can include shaking, trembling, dizziness, sweating; difficulties with thinking, concentrating and remembering; feelings of nausea, thinking you are going to vomit; racing heart, palpitations, sweating, breathing difficulties and fainting
The DSM-IV distinguishes between two types of phobia: specific and social phobias. The former are described as being “unwarranted fears caused by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation”. They are categorised according to the source of the fear:
· Blood, injuries, and injections
· Situations (e.g., planes, elevators, enclosed spaces)
· The natural environment (e.g., heights, water).
Social phobias are described as being “persistent, irrational fears linked to the presence of other people”. Thus, those with this disorder will try to avoid particular situations in which they might be evaluated ( For example, public speaking or performances, eating in a group or using public toilets.)
In some situations, mild phobias are viewed as being understandable and relatively normal.
For instance, there are many children who’re afraid of the dark, of scary monsters or of people like clowns. Although this is normal, and usually just “a stage”, if they persist over time or are incapacitating then the person can develop a true phobia. Phobias also develop in response to a trauma, such as being bitten by a dog as child. However, in other situations, there is no apparent trigger so the fear seems completely irrational.
In terms of treatment, the most popular approach is taking medication (antidepressant or anti-anxiety agents), especially when combined with CBT. In addition to this, behavioural therapy (systematic desensitisation) is also effective when treating phobias. Here, the person is gradually exposed to the feared object or situation while also being trained in how to manage the resultant anxiety.
I love how the school threatened to suspend the girl while refusing to address the audist bullies who bullied her and other girls for using American Sign Language.
Go fuck yourself, Stonybrook School.
Via ABC News:
School officials have threatened a hearing-impaired girl with suspension if she uses sign language to talk to her friends on the school bus, the girl’s parents say.
Danica Lesko and her parents say sign language is the only way to for the 12-year-old to communicate, especially while riding to school on a noisy bus.
But officials at Stonybrook School — which is not a school for the hearing-impaired — and district officials in Branchburg, N.J., apparently believe signing is a safety hazard. They have sent a letter to the Lesko family ordering Danica to stop using sign language on the school bus or risk a three-day suspension.
The March 30 letter from her principal that said Danica was “doing sign language after being told it wasn’t allowed on the bus.”
The Leskos may file a lawsuit over the sign language ban, claiming officials are violating Danica’s civil rights and violating the Americans with Disabilities Act.
“She has a hearing problem, and now she’s being punished for using sign language,” Mary Ann Lesko, Danica’s mother, told The Star-Ledger of Newark. “It’s absurd.”
Danica’s parents told the paper that other students who rode to school with their daughter made fun of her, and refused to stay in their seats as they teased other girls who were using sign language. They said school officials are singling out Danica and not addressing those who should really be reprimanded.
Schools Officials: Safety First
In a statement released through the school district’s attorney, David Rubin, the Branchburg Board of Education refused to discuss the details of Danica’s case, saying only that its version of events differs from the parents’ version.
However, the board insisted it has not violated anyone’s rights and is only trying to protect other students who must ride on the school bus.
“The Board is committed to providing reasonable accommodations to all students with disabilities, and is satisfied that there has been no violation of that policy in this case,” officials said in the statement. “The Board is also committed to assuring the safety of all students who travel on District buses, and will continue to take appropriate steps to accomplish that goal.”
One deaf-rights advocate said Danica’s parents have a strong basis for a lawsuit because sign language could be a considered a foreign language, and school officials could be violating the girl’s First Amendment right to communicate.
“Why should there be a ban?” asked Charlotte Karras, outreach coordinator for the Edison, N.J.-based Alliance for Disabled in Action. “It’s a violation of her communication rights. She’s said it’s the only way she can communicate with her friends … It’s [the ban] against the ADA and violates the First Amendment and her family can file a discrimination suit citing the Americans With Disabilities Act.”
Karras said her organization would be willing to help the Leskos with any legal action.
Danica’s parents say she began losing her hearing last November, when a classmate allegedly shot a bottle rocket near her ear. They have already sued the Branchburg School District over that incident.
wtf… a safety hazard? why, because folks are fuckin with her? and this AFTER a kid at the school fucked up her hearing in the first place?
Maybe if the bus monitors and and teachers told them lil muhfuckas to cut the shit it wouldn’t have happened in first place. and now they need to
tellmake those little assholes tostfu and leave her alone.
fuck is wrong with people.
Wtf is wrong with these people???? Your isolating her and making it so she can’t fucking communicate at all! Sweet fuck, she already feels ostrisized for being deaf, being bullied and now once again the adults take the side of the bullies. This kind of crap is why my mother is sick and tired of working in the school board system, the needs of special needs kids are being tossed aside like nothing. My mother would flip her shit if she heard this, she’s a speech specialist who is completely fluent in sign language and teaches it to us on the basis that is a valuable skill. Not a fucking SAFETY HAZARD!?!
America. The only reason Canada has a reputation for being nice is only because we’re nicer than you. Shape the fuck up and start addressing the real problem, which, since you missed it, is the bullies!
My headcanon which mostly relates to Loki/Steve:
One day, before they sent Loki back to Asgard to be dealt with, Steve learned about Asgardian punishments from Thor, who was wondering sadly what the fate of his brother would be. He was horrified, considered all of them to be human rights violations reminiscent of those committed during WWII, (especially the sewing together of Loki’s lips), and began to oppose the idea of sending him back home to be punished. He pressed Fury to invoke their jurisdictional rights- after all, the crimes were committed on earth- but eventually it was decided that Loki was indeed to be sent back to Asgard. Steve resents this and feels they are dirty heroes because of it. If questioned about it, he becomes prickly, and will tell you that they could have punished Loki on earth.
Loki knows what Steve attempted to do, and considers him a fool for trying. However, he appreciates it very much, despite refusing to admit it.
Submitted by bigfangirl
…as though Loki could some how pull Thor back, or feels compelled to follow before restraining himself.
Have another feel: THIS IS LOKI TURNING HIS BACK ON ODIN TRULY FOR THE FIRST TIME EVEN BEFORE HE FINDS OUT THAT HE’S NOT REALLY ODIN’S SON.
BUT HE STILL CAN’T TURN AWAY FROM HIS BROTHER.
ALL THESE FEELS.
I mean damn it, these movies have eaten me alive!
I may as well make this a bloody Cap America and Loki blog lately. I do apologize to everyone who is putting up with all of this. Between the movies, Kevin and my girlfriend I’m a little obsessed right NOW.
Pepper asked Natasha to teach her some useful knots; ones that could easily be undone by someone on the outside, but not by the one who was tied up.
She had gone to Steve first, thinking that as a military man he might have a trick or two. Steve didn’t understand what she wanted them for—and when she explained, he turned so red that Pepper was worried he might pop a vessel or two.
Natasha obliged, and afterwards told her that no one would mind too much if Tony was tied up any old time.
Pepper did not tell Tony that, but she did tell him who had taught her his new favorite bedtime activity.
Tony bought Natasha a new set of silencers as a thank-you present.
Submitted by initiala